Glossary

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z


Algorithm

An algorithm is a mathematical formula or equation derived from extensive biostatistical analysis, that, when applied to measurements of specific genomic markers (e.g., gene expression), provides a score that can assess likelihood of a current or future disease state.

Back To Top

Angina
Angina is chest pain or chest discomfort when a person’s heart muscle does not get enough blood, because of blockages in the coronary arteries. Some patients may feel this as pressure in the chest, squeezing pain in the chest, or pain in the shoulders, arms, neck, jaw, or back.

Back To Top

Arrhythmia
Arrhythmia is any disorder of the heart rate or heart rhythm, in which the heart beats too quickly (tachycardia), too slowly (bradycardia), or with an irregular pattern (fibrillation).

Back To Top

Atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis is the accumulation of lipoproteins, cellular products, calcium, and other substances, all referred to as plaque, in the inner lining of an artery.

Back To Top

Bioinformatics
Bioinformatics is the analysis of biological data using advanced computational and statistical techniques.

Back To Top

Cardiac Catheterization
Cardiac catheterization is an invasive procedure used to examine the heart in coronary angiography and diagnose the presence and extent of coronary artery disease (CAD).

Back To Top

Case
In a case-control clinical trial, a case is defined as a patient with disease. In the PREDICT trial, a case is defined as a patient having at least one atherosclerotic plaque causing ≥50% luminal diameter stenosis in a major coronary artery (≥1.5 mm lumen diameter) as determined by invasive quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). (See Control.)

Back To Top

CLIA (Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments)
Congress passed the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) in 1988, establishing quality standards for all laboratory testing to ensure the accuracy, reliability, and timeliness of patient test results regardless of where the test is performed. All CardioDx tests are processed in a CLIA-licensed laboratory.

Back To Top

Clinical Study or Trial
Clinical studies are research studies designed to answer specific questions regarding safety or efficacy of emerging tests or therapeutics or new applications of known tests or therapeutics.

Back To Top

Control
In a case-control clinical trial, a control is defined as a patient without disease. In the PREDICT Trial, a control is defined as a patient having no atherosclerotic plaque(s) causing ≥50% luminal diameter stenosis in a major coronary artery (≥1.5 mm lumen diameter) as determined by invasive quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). (See Case.)

Back To Top

Coronary Angiography
Coronary angiography is an invasive procedure using X-ray imaging technology and a contrast agent to visualize the lumen, or interior, of the blood vessels of the heart. This examination is performed in the cardiac catheterization lab.

Back To Top

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
CAD is a disease caused by atherosclerotic luminal narrowing of the coronary arteries leading to the heart, which limits the supply of blood to the heart. (See Atherosclerosis.)

Back To Top

Corus® CAD
Corus CAD is the only blood test that can quickly and safely identify symptomatic patients unlikely to have obstructive* coronary artery disease (CAD).

Back To Top

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)
DNA is a nucleic acid that contains the hereditary genetic material for all living things. DNA is present in all human cells.

Back To Top

Gene
A gene is an ordered sequence of nucleotides that is located in a particular position on a particular chromosome. Genes contain information to make specific proteins, which then express specific traits or carry out functions in living things.

Back To Top

Gene Expression
Gene expression is the process by which genetic information from DNA is made into a functional gene product through transcription into mRNA and translation into protein. RNA levels change as a result of disease processes happening inside a person’s body and can be used to inform on current disease status. The Corus CAD gene expression test provides information about a person’s current disease state because it measures the activity of specific RNAs known to be involved in the response to and development and progression of atherosclerosis.

Back To Top

Gene Expression Profile
A gene expression profile is the specific gene expression pattern from a set of genes within an individual.

Back To Top

Genetics
Genetics is the scientific study of inheritance, as it relates to heritable traits, diseases, and other characteristics. Genetic testing uses various approaches to identify genetic variations, traits, mutations and predispositions. The results of genetic testing are constant throughout an individual's lifetime and can help estimate a person’s risk of developing disease in the future.

Back To Top

Genome
A genome is the complete hereditary information for a particular organism that is encoded in DNA.

Back To Top

Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS)
A genome-wide association study is the empirical clinical study approach that examines the entire genome with the goal of identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) uniquely present in patients with disease (cases) relative to those without disease (controls).

Back To Top

Genomics
Genomics is the study of the entire genetic makeup of an individual (their genome) coupled with the interaction of those genes with each other and with the individual’s environment.

Back To Top

Heart Failure
Heart failure is a structural problem or functional impairment that limits the ability of the heart to pump effectively and provide adequate blood flow to the body and organs, resulting in fluid build-up, difficulty breathing, and lung congestion.

Back To Top

Human Genome Project

The Human Genome Project is an international scientific project (1990–2003) that successfully culminated in the sequencing of the first entire human genome and the identification of its approximately 25,000 genes.

Back To Top

Ischemia
Ischemia is a restriction of blood flow, and therefore oxygen, to any area of the body. Cardiac ischemia specifically relates to the restriction of blood to the heart.

Back To Top

Messenger RNA (mRNA)
Messenger RNA is a type of RNA transcribed from DNA and involved in protein synthesis.

Back To Top

Metabolomics
Metabolomics is the systematic study of small molecule metabolites found in bodily fluids such as whole blood.

Back To Top

Microarray
A microarray is a high-throughput technology that enables the detection of gene expression levels or the detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the genome.

Back To Top

Myocardial Infarction (MI)
Myocardial infarction, commonly referred as heart attack, is an irreversible damage of cells in the myocardium due to restricted blood flow.

Back To Top

Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (MPI)
Myocardial perfusion imaging is an imaging procedure that illustrates the function of the heart, through the injection of radioisotope dye.

Back To Top

Nucleotide
Nucleotides are the basic unit for DNA and RNA, consisting of a nitrogenous base, a phosphate group, and a sugar.

Back To Top

Polymorphism
Polymorphism is the presence of more than one allele (or genetic variation) in a given population.

Back To Top

Proteins
Proteins are large, complex molecules made up of amino acids. They are essential to biological function.

Back To Top

Proteomics
Proteomics is the study of the complete complement of the function and structure of proteins within an organism.

Back To Top

Quantitative Coronary Angiography (QCA)
Considered the "gold standard" for evaluating obstructive CAD, QCA is an objective, semi-automated method for calculating maximal percent stenosis as found during invasive coronary angiography. QCA was used as the endpoint in the PREDICT trial where the Corus CAD gene expression score was correlated to the maximal percent diameter stenosis as determined by QCA.

Back To Top

Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR)
qRT-PCR is a technology used to quantify DNA sequences. This technique is useful in determining the presence and amount of a single, specific sequence within a sample of DNA.

Back To Top

RNA (Ribonucleic Acid)
RNA is a kind of nucleic acid that contains phosphate, uracil, and ribose. RNA is responsible for regulating gene expression and the synthesis of proteins.

Back To Top

Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)
A SNP (pronounced "snip") is a variation of a single nucleotide in the human genome. (See Polymorphism.)

Back To Top

Stenosis
Stenosis is a narrowing within any tubular structure. In cardiovascular disease, this is specifically related to the narrowing of an artery or, less often, a vein. Arterial stenosis due to atherosclerotic disease can result in the obstruction of blood flow, or cardiac ischemia.

Back To Top

Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA)
Sudden cardiac arrest is the sudden, abrupt loss of heart function typically caused by rapid, irregular ventricle rhythms, either ventricular fibrillation (VF) or ventricular tachycardia (VT). The quivering ventricles are unable to pump blood to the body, and the condition is lethal 95% of the time if not treated in time (i.e., sudden cardiac death).

Back To Top

Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD)
Sudden cardiac death is death as a result of an unattended sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) event. (See sudden cardiac arrest.)

Back To Top

Transcriptome
The complete set of transcripts present in a given cell.

* Obstructive CAD is defined as at least one atherosclerotic plaque causing ≥50% luminal diameter stenosis in a major coronary artery (≥1.5 mm lumen diameter) as determined by invasive quantitative coronary angiography (QCA).